The place where to big rivers (Sava and Danube) join, is a very good site for a settlement, like wise many other places in the world. Due to that fact, the history of Belgrade is about 7000 years long. As a result of archaeological researches, many objects from prehistoric settlements have been found and can be seen today in the National Museum. When the Celtic warriors came, the settlement got the name Singidunum, “Round City”. In the antique era, at the beginning of the 1st century AD, Romans have conquered this important strategical settlement. The glory has been brought to the antique Singidunum by the 4th Legion of Flavius.
Today, onn the Kalemegdan Fortresshe you can see relics of Roman castrum. During the four centuries of Roman reign, Singidunum became a colony of Roman citiyens. When the Empire was divided, Singidunum was included into the Eastern Roman Empire. In th emiddle of the 5th century, the town was conquered, robbed, and reigned for short by Huns, until the decay of their state. Some of the Byzantine emperors, like Anastasius and Justinian, have restored and further built the town. Even today is possible to recognize several layers in the Fortress walls of the relics of Roman forts.
The name Belgrade is the new name of the city. That was a new period for ancient Slavs. The name Belgrade for the first time appeared in the document of Pope John the VIII in 878. (that document is still in Vatican). With the spread of Christianity, Belgrade became the center of the Episcopy. Belgrade has become the most glorious city on the Danube. From 9th to the 11th century, rulers of Belgrade frequently changed (Hungarians, Bulgarians, Byzantines). During the Crusade, Fridrich Barbarossa also passed through. Belgrade became an important post on the road to the Middle East.
Serbian reign began with King Dragutin, in 1284. During his reign many Serbs settled in Belgrade. After King his death, his brother Milutin has inherited the throne. He succeeded in defending the city from Hungarian attacks for only three years (till 1319). From that time up to the begining of the 15th century, Belgrade was a province of marginal importance in the famous Despot Stefan Lazarevic. Belgrade became the capital of Serbia for the fisrt time.
Many travellers described the beauty of Belgrade. After the Despot’s death in 1427, the city fell again to Hungarians.
After three sieges, it finally fell as a Christian fulcrum in 1521. The creation of a new, oriental city look, started immediately. Belgrade had about 70 mosques in the 17th century. During the 18th and 19th centuries, the political conflicts about the city and rulers switched one after an other again. The I Serbian Rebellion against the, Turks (1804), brought back Belgrade to its people for short (from 1806 to 1813). Diplomatic reign of Milos Obrenovic, the leader of the II Rebellion (1814), enabled Belgrade to be aimultaneously the center of superior Turkish power, and autonomous Serbian Government. During that period, many important bulidings were bulit. For example: the Saborna Church, Konak Kneginje Ljubice, Topcider court bulidings, schools, library, post office, National Theater. In 1867 Turks have delivered the keys of the City of Belgrade.